3D movement of 13.8Hz

(A video is being downloaded in case you're wondering why there is no picture.)

The video is 1.5MB large. To facilitate viewing in repeat motion of continuous forward and backwards, please download a software Audio/Loudspeaker/animate.exe to view it off-line. 

Contrary to many understandings, the loudspeaker does not move like this :(

Please assume what is shown as ideal and does not exist.


  1. Loudspeaker

  2. Signal Path

  3. Anatomy

  4. Voice Coil

  5. Sound Representation on Scientific Terms

  6. 3D movement of 13.8Hz

  7. 2D movement 13.7Hz

  8. But no speaker is perfect

  9. Because of Cone Break-up

  10. Radiation is frequency dependent

  11. Radiation Field

  12. Therefore no speaker has flat frequency response

  13. Why do we need flat frequency response?



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