Therefore no speaker has flat frequency response


Please compare purple color curve "on-axis" (head-on) versus green color curve "off-axis" where the speaker is facing away the microphone / person.


Notice the significant changes in frequency response just because 2 person do not sit on the same place. 


Consider what will happen if a speaker produce different sound outward in 360 degrees and reflecting of hundreds of different surfaces, going through hundreds of different absorption transformation and finally reflect back to the ear?


Not to mention all the phase cancellation and additions along the way. Please read Flat Frequency Response for a clearer picture of what is mean.




  1. Loudspeaker

  2. Signal Path

  3. Anatomy

  4. Voice Coil

  5. Sound Representation on Scientific Terms

  6. 3D movement of 13.8Hz

  7. 2D movement 13.7Hz

  8. But no speaker is perfect

  9. Because of Cone Break-up

  10. Radiation is frequency dependent

  11. Radiation Field

  12. Therefore no speaker has flat frequency response

  13. Why do we need flat frequency response?



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